is a short term for third-generation wireless, and refers to
near-future developments in personal and business wireless technology,
especially mobile communications. This phase is expected to reach
maturity between the years 2003 and 2005.
The third generation, as its name suggests, follows the first
generation (1G) and second generation (2G) in wireless communications.
The 1G period began in the late 1970s and lasted through the 1980s.
These systems featured the first true mobile phone systems, known at
first as "cellular mobile radio telephone." These networks used
analogue voice signalling, and were little more sophisticated than
repeater networks used by amateur radio operators. The 2G phase began
in the 1990s, and much of this technology is still in use. The 2G cell
phone features digital voice encoding. Examples include CDMA, TDMA, and
GSM. Since its inception, 2G technology has steadily improved, with
increased bandwidth, packet routing, and the introduction of
multimedia. The present state of mobile wireless communications is
often called 2.5G.
Ultimately, 3G is expected to include
capabilities and features such as:
Enhanced multimedia (voice, data, video, and remote control)
Usability on all popular modes (cellular telephone, e-mail, paging,
fax, videoconferencing, and Web browsing)
Broad bandwidth and high speed (upwards of 2 Mbps)
Routing flexibility (repeater, satellite, LAN)
Operation at approximately 2 GHz transmit and receive frequencies
Roaming capability throughout Europe, Japan, and North America
While 3G is generally considered
applicable mainly to mobile broadband , it is also relevant to fixed
wireless and portable wireless. The ultimate 3G system might be
operational from any location on, or over, the earth's surface,
including use in or by:
Personal and commercial land vehicles
Private and commercial watercraft and marine craft
Private and commercial aircraft (except where passenger use
Portable (pedestrians, hikers, cyclists, campers)
Space stations and spacecraft
Proponents of 3G technology promise that
it will "keep people connected at all times and in all places."
Researchers, engineers, and marketeers are faced with the challenge of
accurately predicting how much technology consumers will actually be
willing to pay for. (Recent trends suggest that people sometimes prefer
to be disconnected, especially when on vacation.) Another concern
involves privacy and security issues. As technology becomes more
sophisticated and bandwidth increases, systems become increasingly
vulnerable to attack by malicious hackers (known as crackers) unless
countermeasures are implemented to protect against such activity.
and UMTS were
developed separately and are 2 separate ITU approved 3G standards.
Cdma2000 1xRTT, cdma2000 1xEV-DO (EVolution, Data Only) and future
cdma2000 3x were developed to be backward compatible with cdmaOne. Both
1x types have the same bandwidth, chip rate and it can be used in any
existing cdmaOne frequency band and network. Backward compatibility was
a requirement for successful deployment for USA market. It is easy to
implement because operators do not need new frequencies. UMTS was
developed mainly for countries with GSM networks, because these
countries have agreed to free new frequency ranges for UMTS networks.
Because it is a new technology and in a new frequency band, whole new
radio access network has to be build. The advantage is that new
frequency range gives plenty of new capacity for operators.
NMS 3G Tutorial
Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)
IEC : Billing in a 3G Environment
3G and CDMA
CDG: 3G Resources