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Author Topic: Sending to GSM and CDMA  (Read 1355 times)
coldfusion
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« on: March 28, 2006, 06:07:03 UTC »

What happens when my GSM phone sends SMS to a Sprint or Verizon phone? Aren't they using CDMA, can CDMA receive SMS?

If this has been answered before, I apologize but I searched and could not find it.

Thanks for your time.
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« Reply #1 on: March 28, 2006, 20:51:41 UTC »

Usually the message is off-loaded off the GSM or CDMA SMSC to an inter-carrier platform that analyses the destination address, resolves it to its destination carrier, routes it there (usually over SMPP) and then the carrier dispatches it onto the correct SMSC (GSM/CDMA) and finally delivers the message as a MT message to the recipient phone.
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nagesh.kumar
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« Reply #2 on: February 21, 2007, 15:37:01 UTC »

Hi,

Please could you clarify the following doubts too in SMSs between GSM-CDMA and vice versa?

1. In direction of SMS from GSM to CDMA - how does a GSM SMSC know that the destination number is a CDMA number and it has to use SMPP? Does every GSM SMSC has a configuration of all the possible ranges of CDMA numbers or GSM SMSC does a HLR dip, which fails based on which it decides to send over SMPP? (I am trying to understand whether it is mandatory to configure in all GSM SMSCs about all the possible CDMA numbers.)

2. Similarly in ther other direction (from CDMA to GSM) - when SMS (destined for a GSM subscriber) is sent over SMPP network by a CDMA SMSC, does it always reach "destination" SMSC in GSM domain or it reaches a "special" SMSC in GSM domain which does HLR dip and deliver it?

I appreciate your help in clarifying the same. (In case these are addressed by some other thread, please could you point me?)

Regards
Nagesh
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RussCrush
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« Reply #3 on: February 24, 2007, 01:52:12 UTC »

Here is what I know about it......

When signaling between CDMA and GSM, CDMA is always on SMPP, due to the constraints on CDMA SMS signaling via C7.

GSM maybe SMPP, but because there is network support world-wide, it is not necessary.

 There is an Application Server that acts as a middleman, facing the GSM C7 network as a network node, with its own GT address. The CDMA is connected IP for SMPP.

 When the GSM subscriber signals (SRI_SM), it goes to the Application, and the Application responds. THe SMS is passed, and accepted by the Application, and then it is passed on to the CDMA operator SMPP.

 Reverse it, and the CDMA sends an SMS to the GSM operator. Each "side" sees only the Application Server in the middle.

 Belgacom, Mobility 365, and Syniverse are 3 companies that do this C7 to SMPP conversion.
« Last Edit: February 25, 2007, 00:28:11 UTC by SMS Forum Support » Logged
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« Reply #4 on: February 25, 2007, 00:33:55 UTC »

Quote
how does a GSM SMSC know that the destination number is a CDMA number and it has to use SMPP?

usually it doesn't.. it assumes it's GSM, and goes about the delivery as if going to a GSM handset. The CDMA network will more than likely be accessible as a GSM termination through some inter-carier GRX (as described by the previous poster)

Quote
Similarly in ther other direction (from CDMA to GSM)

just the reverse.. the CDMA network routes its GSM-destined messages to the GRX which then issues them on his behalf over GSM SS7.

In some scenarios, the CDMA carrier is also a GSM carrier and can do this himself, by presenting his entire subscriber base as GSM, using an addon for the SMSC for terminating the CDMA/TDMA-destined messages.

But the wholesale carriers, often called GRX operators, tend to do most of this kind of magic these days on behalf of the various networks.
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nagesh.kumar
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« Reply #5 on: February 27, 2007, 13:00:59 UTC »

Hi Cormac, RussCrush,

Thanks for the clarifications. The information was quite helpful.

We are developing an ESME which will share the same numbers as allocated to MSs.This connects to SMSC using SMPP and should work both in GSM and CDMA deployments. In CDMA, based on the above discussion, it is not an issue since SMS sent by a GSM subscriber or anothe CDMA subscriber will ultimately reach my operator's SMSC via SMPP, which will in turn deliver to my ESME via SMPP.

However, in GSM, based on the above discussion, two cases exist. I request for your expertise help in clarifying the same.

1. If a CDMA subsrciber sends SMS to the "shared" number, it reaches the GRX. Can the GRX be configured to send the SMS out onto the SMPP network on the GSM side too, so that the SMS will reach my operator's SMSC?
2. When another GSM operator's subscriber sends SMS, can that operator SMSC be expected to route SMSs on to SMPP network, so that it will ultimately reach my operator's SMSC? (The thread http://smsforum.net/smf/index.php?topic=3132.0 specifies that in US and other environments, GSM-SMSCs typically send SMSs on to SMPP network. Is this a good assumption to make in most deployments?)

In general, what are the conditions under which GSM-SMSCs send SMSs over SMPP network? (HLR lookup failure, configuration etc...)

I appreciate your help in clarifying these. Thanks a lot in advance.

Regards
Nagesh
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« Reply #6 on: February 27, 2007, 23:38:04 UTC »

what you are describing there is again a hack.. GSM SMS is fundamentally designed to have the SMS stored in the SMSC of the origin subscriber and his network.. the "destination" is either an application on that same network (and SMSC) or a mobile device in another network.

When the desired destination is an application in another network, for GSM, you need to use custom-defined international MSISDNs to route to the destination and STP magic to divert SRIs for these special numbers to special hardware on the destination network... all this is configured at the destination netork.. the sending network never knows that the destnation "device" is not a mobile phone.

The special hardware/software, emulates a MT termination point.. aka virtual HLR & MSC..  for the so-called MT-FSM sent from network A to B.. but instead of terminating to a mobile device, it gets rerouted into the SMSC (possibly by being converted to an MO or SMPP message) and then delivered to the service.

That in fact is exactly what GRX's are doing to act on behalf of GSM and non-GSM networks.. they terminate MT traffic (acking SRIs and MT-FSMs) and then relay the messages either over SS7, SMPP etc.. but potentially sending these messages to SMSCs.

Many SMSC providers have these kind of products available as add-ons to their SMSCs.. often called mobile directors, foreign subscriber gateways.. there's no real standard term for them... but they do exist.
« Last Edit: February 27, 2007, 23:58:24 UTC by SMS Forum Support » Logged

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bhavaniy
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« Reply #7 on: February 28, 2007, 08:42:46 UTC »

Hi Cormac et al,

This is an intresting discussion and thanks for the detailed responses posted so far. I have one clarification on the "STP magic" you were mentioning.

Is it possible to route only MAP_SRISMs to this special hardware node, by way of STP configuration? What typical configuration is needed at STP?

Also which SMSC vendors support handing MAP_SRISM as an add-on - as mentioned in the previous response? (Can you specify some of them?)

Thanks
Bhavani
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